In The Architecture of Race in American Immigration Law, Ngai discusses how through the Immigration Act of 1924 America was able to codify legal discrimination yet again through the use of race based language and the creation of the national origins quota system. In terms of race based language the United States essentially tried to keep out anyone who wasn’t “white” out of America by reconstructing racial categories. The language used was preferential to western and northern Europeans and was meant to keep out southern and eastern Europeans. By differentiating European immigrants by nationality and then ranking them based on desirability the US reinforced a white American race that was based on a common whiteness. This common whiteness led to the surge in nativism and white supremacy in America during the 1920’s especially in terms of the rise of eugenics, and other theories that immigration was harming America. I thought it was interesting to see how these theories came about and what the “science” behind the theories worked. I also found it very interesting and questionable how the system of national origins was developed because in the article Ngai discusses how Joseph Hill himself said that there were many errors in the research and calculations. It’s questionable because even with all the holes, miscalculations, and uncertainty within the system it was still approved and was used to keep out immigrants.